What is Stocks and Where to Use?

What is Stock in Cooking and Where to Use?

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Fish, Chicken, Beef and Vegetable Stock Preparation Methods and Materials

What is Stock in Cooking?

Stocks are aromatic liquids prepared in professional kitchens for the purpose of making various soups, meals and / or sauces. Stocks or “flavored liquids” are used to enhance the flavor of dishes, sauces. Since it saves time to add flavor, it is prepared in large quantities by pre-cooking over low heat, then refrigerated or frozen.

You may have heard of Demi-Glace Sauce Recipe, which everyone is familiar with and prepared in a long time. Before you start, it’s worth looking at some terms.

Remouillage: The word translates as a “rewetting”, which is a good way to think of the way that remouillage is made. Bones used to prepare a “primary stock” are reserved after the first stock is strained away from the bones. The bones are then covered with water, and a “secondary stock” is prepared.

Mirepoix: is a flavor base usually made from chopped vegetables cooked with butter, oil or other oils for a long time without being colored or fried over low heat, as further cooking creates a dark brown, usually with the addition of tomato puree.

Bouquet Garni: is a bunch of herbs that are often tied together with twine and are often used to prepare soups, broths, stews, and various casseroles. The bouquet is cooked with other ingredients but removed before consumption. The liquid remaining in the bouquet can be squeezed and sprayed on the plate.

White Stock(Fond): is made with white meat or beef, veal bones, chicken carcasses, and aromatic vegetables.

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Simmer: The mixture is reduced slowly with very low heat to a simmer to finish cooking.


What is Stock in Cooking - White Stock (Fond Blanc)
What is Stock in Cooking – White Stock (Fond Blanc)

1. White Stock (Fond Blanc):

Required Ingredients for a yield of 15 Gal / 56 Lt:

  • Bones Cut Small – 60 Lb / 27 Kg
  • Cold Water – 18 Gal / 68 Lt
  • Butter – 1 Lb / 450 Gr
  • Thyme – 1 Tbsp
  • Bouquet Garni – 1 Large
  • Bay Leaf – 10-15 Peace
  • For mire-poix:
    • Onion Diced – 3 Lb / 1.36 Kg
    • Carrot diced – 3 Lb / 1.36 Kg
    • Celery diced – 3 Lb / 1.36 Kg
    • Leek diced – 3 Lb / 1.36 Kg

Preparation Method for White Stock:

  • Place Bones in a stockpot and cover then with the cold water,
  • Bring Slowly to a boil and skim the scum,
  • Sauté mirepoix in butter until golden,
  • Add sautéed mirepoix and aromatics to stock,
  • Simmer 5-6 hours for chicken and 8-10 Hours for Veal,
  • Pass through a fine strainer,
  • Label the stock container,
  • Cool and refrigerate,

What is Stock in Cooking - Brown Stock (Fond Brun)
What is Stock in Cooking – Brown Stock (Fond Brun)

2. Brown Stock Recipe (Fond Brun):

  • The Brown stock is made with beef, veal, and poultry meat and bones,
  • The bones are roasted until golden in colour, not burnt. (Burnt bones and mirepoix will damage the stock’s flavour and colour),
  • The mirepoix is added when the bones are three-quarters roasted; tomato product may also be added,
  • When the bones and mirepoix are golden in colour, the cold liquid is added and the mixture is slowly brought to a boil, then reduced to a simmer to finish cooking,
  • This stock is used for brown sauces and gravies, braised dishes, and meat glazes,

What is Stock in Cooking - Veal Stock (Brown Stock)
What is Stock in Cooking – Veal Stock (White Stock)

Method of Preparation and Ingredients for Brown Stock (Veal, Beef)

Required Ingredients for a yield of 15 Gal / 56 Lt:

  • Bones Cut Small – 60 Lb / 27 Kg
  • Cold Water or Remouillage – 18 Gal / 68 Lt
  • Tomato Product – Optional
  • Thyme – 1 Tbsp
  • Bouquet Garni – 1 Large
  • Bay Leaf – 10-15 Piece
  • For mirepoix:
    • Onion Diced – 3 Lb / 1.36 Kg
    • Carrot diced – 3 Lb / 1.36 Kg
    • Celery diced – 3 Lb / 1.36 Kg
    • Leek diced – 3 Lb / 1.36 Kg

Preparation Method for Brown Stock:

  • Place Bones in a roasting pan and brown in a 350 °F oven.
  • When Bones are 3/4 done, place mirepoix over the bones and finish browning.
  • When browned, remove bones and mirepoix and place in a stockpot with aromatics.
  • Remove the fat from the roasting pan.
  • Deglaze roasting pan with water or Remouillage and add to the stockpot.
  • Add the remaining cold water or Remouillage to cover the bones.
  • Bring to a boil reduce to a simmer and skim.
  • Summer for 8 to 10 hours.
  • Pass through a fine strainer.
  • Label the stock container.
  • Cool and refrigerate.

What is Stock in Cooking - White Stock (Fond Blanc) Vegetable Stock
What is Stock in Cooking – Vegetable Stock White Stock

3. Vegetable or Neutral Stock (Fond de légume):

  • Is a neutral stock composed of vegetables and aromatic herbs sautéed gently in butter, then cooked in the liquid.
  • Often the less desirable parts of the vegetables (such as carrot skins and celery ends) are used for preparing the veg stock since they will not be eaten.
  • This relatively new type of stock is gaining in popularity in the culinary world.
  • Vegetable stock is used generally in vegetarian cooking and volutes.
  • It is often used as a replacement for bouillon and other meat stocks, like chicken stock.

Method of Preparation and Ingredients for Vegetable Stock

Required Ingredients for a yield of 15 Gal / 56 Lt:

  • Vegetable trimmings
  • Cold Water
  • Thyme
  • Bouquet Garni
  • Bay Leaf
  • For mirepoix:
    • Onion Diced
    • Carrot diced
    • Celery diced

Preparation Method for Vegetable Stock:

  • Use approximately equal proportions of vegetables and water.
  • The basic ingredients of a vegetable stock are vegetable, herbs and spices.
  • The vegetable stock needs to be simmered only 30 to 45 minutes.
  • Pass through a fine strainer.
  • Label the stock container.
  • Cool and refrigerate.

What is Stock in Cooking - Fish Stock (Fume de Poisson)
What is Stock in Cooking – Fish Stock (Fume de Poisson)

4. Fish Stock (Fume de Poisson):

  • Fish stock is categorised separately from the other basic stocks because of its limited usage.
  • The basis of fish preparation is fumet or fond.
  • It has been said that all fish produce a fumet are equal. Some fish produce better quality stock than others.
  • The result from some fish are stocks which are too gelatinous and fishy tasting.
  • Fish are which are oily yield stock that has a bitter taste or that is milky.
  • Classical preparation calls for the bones of specific fish for fumet.
  • Dover sole, turbot, brill and whiting are recommended for their superior flavour.
  • However, the important thing is that the fish is fresh and that its flesh is white.

Fish stock (Veal, Beef) – Method of Preparation and Ingredients

Required Ingredients for a yield of 3 Gal / 11 Lt:

  • Fishbones with heads – 12 Lb / 5.4 Kg
  • Cold Wate – 2 Gal / 7 Lt
  • Butter – 2 Oz / 56 Gr
  • Thyme – 1 Pinch
  • Bay Leaf – 2 Piece
  • For mirepoix:
    • Onion Diced – 8 Oz / 250 Gr
    • Celery diced – 4 Oz / 113 Gr
    • Leek diced – 4 Oz / 113 Gr

Preparation Method for Fish Stock:

  • Clean fish bones and head in cold running water.
  • Break the large bones.
  • Remove any black skin, blood clots and gills.
  • Sauté mirepoix and aromatics in butter.
  • Cover and let sweat in their own juices.
  • Add fish bones, cover and let sweat for a few minutes.
  • Add white wine and cover with cold water.
  • Bring to a slow boil and simmer uncovered for up to 45 minutes.
  • Pass through a fine strainer.
  • Label the stock container.
  • Cool and refrigerate.

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