Culinary Dictionary -D-

Dab:This flatfish is a variety of flounder that features a sweet, firm flesh.
Dacquoise:A cake made of nut meringues layered with whipped cream or buttercream. The nut meringue disks are also referred to as dacquoise.
Daikon Radish:From the Japanese words dai (large) and kon (root). A large, long, white tubular radish with a sweet, fresh flavor. Eaten in many Asian cultures. Can be as fat as a football but is usually 2 to 3 inches in diameter. Use raw in salads, shredded as a garnish or cook in a variety of ways including stir-fry. Found in Oriental markets and some supermarkets.
Daikon:A Japanese root vegetable, that looks like a white carrot that is used in salads or and a wide variety of cooked dishes, including stir-fry.
Daily value (dv) (food industry term):A list of vitamins, minerals, nutrients, etc., printed on a product label.
Dairy products (food industry term):Milk (including dry milk), cream, sour cream, yogurt, eggs, butter and substitutes such as margarine, cheese, and ice cream.
Dairy/deli case extender (food industry term):An insulated container display attached to a refrigerated case that extends into an aisle to stimulate impulse buys.
Dal:1. The Hindi term for dried peas, beans, and lentils; legumes. 2. Dal is also the word for the spicy dish made with lentils, tomatoes, onions and various seasonings. It is often pureed and served with curry.
Dal:This is the Indian term for all varieties of dried beans, split peas, and lentils. There are many different varieties of dal, all of which have a specific use in Indian cooking.
Damage center (food industry term):A place where damaged merchandise is sent.
Damaged goods (food industry term):An unsalable product, such as sliced box tops and dented cans.
Dampfbraten:[German] beef stew.
Dandelion:A plant with bright green jagged leaves and a slightly bitter taste. Dandelion leaves can be used in salads or cooked in the same way as spinach.
Dandelion:A strong-tasting green that is among the most vitamin-packed foods on the planet; when young it’s relatively mild, but when it matures, it’s the most bitter of all greens.
Danger zone (food industry term):The temperature range, 40 to 140 degrees Fahrenheit at which foods spoil. Perishable foods should be held at temperatures above or below this temperature range.
Danger zone:The temperature at which perishable food should not be held or left out of refrigeration for any longer than 2 hours-The Danger Zone for food safety is 400 F. to 1400 F.-– perishable foods held in this “zone” for over 2 hours should not be eaten.
Dangler (food industry term):A small, eye-catching sign that hangs from a product or a shelf to draw attention to an item or display.
Dariole:Small, cup-shaped mold used for making puddings, sweet and savory jellies, and creams
Dark chocolate:is also bittersweet, semi-sweet, and sweet dark chocolate; all contain cacao beans, sugar, an emulsifier such as soy lecithin to preserve texture, and flavorings such as vanilla but do not contain milk solids. They are distinguished by the amount of cocoa powder – 30% (sweet dark) to 70%, 75%, or even above 80%, for extremely dark bars.
Darne:[French] The Larousse Gastronomique describes a ‘darne’ as a transverse slice of a large raw fish, such as hake, salmon or tuna.
Dash:An approximate measure roughly equal to 1/16 teaspoon.
Dashi Stock:A broth that is a basic ingredient in Japanese cooking. The stock is made from dried seaweed or from dried tuna shavings. Instant dashi stock is also available. A Japanese fish stock made with dried bonito and kombu seaweed. This is used for soups, sauces, and marinades.
Data mining (food industry term):A process of searching data bases for unique trends or occurring situations and displaying those trends to the user.
Data model (food industry term):The complete set of data elements which must be taken into account whenever software systems are written. Industry efforts are underway to define a standard data model for retailers.
Data warehousing (food industry term):A compilation of data from a variety of sources for storage and easy retrieval.
Data/voice network (food industry term):A telecommunications system that handles both voice and data transmissions over the same line.
Dataviews (food industry term):An easy-to-read table of data, which measures dollar sales, gross margin, and unit movement.
Date code or coding (food industry term):A “sell by” date stamped on a product to ensure freshness. The date assists with quality control (first in, first out) and proper rotation. It may also apply to affixing a “sell by” or “pull by” date on merchandise which is on display (as in the Bakery Department).
Date Sugar:Ground dehydrated dates that are used as a sweetner.
Date:The fruit of a palm tree grown in Mediterranean regions. Usually oval in shape, a very thin skin and exceptionally sweet flesh and a chewy texture. Dates are eaten fresh or dried.
Date:The brown, oval shaped staple of the eastern Mediterranean and western Asia. Intensely sweet; Deglet Noor is a good, and common, dried brand. Fresh dates are increasingly available.
Datiles:[Spanish] dates.
Dating (food industry term):A supplier’s offer that provides discounts for payment of an invoice at some future date. The longer the time period the better the arrangement. See extended dating.
Daube:A classic French stew or pot roast consisting of a single piece of meat such as a shoulder or joint. The meat is stewed in a rich, wine laden broth with herbs and vegetables. The broth is then thickened, reduced and served with the slices of meat and accompanying vegetables.
Dauphine:The name for little puffs made of potato puree, that are mixed with choux paste and deep fried.
Dauphinoise:The name of a potato gratin with lots of cream and garlic, all topped with Gruyere cheese.
Day letter (food industry term):A daily bulletin with current product and pricing information sent to retail stores See bulletin.
Days-of-supply (d-o-s) (food industry term):The amount of product calculated to meet customer demand between replenishments.
Dc (food industry term):Distribution center.
Dead net (food industry term):The lowest cost for goods after all allowances are subtracted, also known as net-net.
Dead-heading (food industry term):Returning an empty vehicle to a warehouse.
Deal (food industry term):A buying arrangement or terms of sale that offer special purchasing incentives; a promotion or a trade deal.
Deal pack (food industry term):A manufacturer’s method of packaging products for special customer promotions at a store.
Deal period (food industry term):A manufacturer’s time frame for special allowances to retailers for a promotion.
Deal sheet (food industry term):A vendor (DSD supplier) generated information sheet listing current or upcoming products on allowance. Includes product description, UPC codes, allowance, cost, start date and end date for each SKU listed.
Deba knife:Deba is a Japanese name. The deba knife cuts thinner slices than any other knife. Its super-sharpness makes it ideal for juliennes and for cutting herbs without destroying their fragile membranes. You can find a deba knife wherever gourmet kitchen products are sold.
Debone:To remove the bones from meat or poultry.
Decentralization of store operations (food industry term):A shift in responsibility and accountability for maintaining store conditions and profitability from a store’s headquarters to a store manager.
Deduct/deduction (food industry term):An amount that is subtracted from a paycheck or an invoice.
Deep discount (food industry term):Lowering the price of merchandise to a minimal markup over the wholesale price.
Deep fat:Hot fat or oil which is deep enough to cover food during frying. Ensure that you put oil into a deep enough pot or deep fryer to prevent burning yourself.
Deep frying:Method of frying food by immersing it in hot fat or oil.
Deep:fry:To cook completely submerged in hot oil. If done right, at the proper temperature, foods absorb little oil and are surprisingly light. The moisture in the food actually repels the oil, which heats the water within the food, and steams it from the inside out.
Deep-discount drug store (food industry term):A low-margin, GM/HBC store with 25,000 SKUs. These stores typically carry fewer sizes, but more GM/HBC brands than a supermarket.
Deep-Fry:To submerge foods in hot oil or fat while cooking.
Deep-fryingSubmerging food, usually coated first in breading or batter, into very hot fat; a dry-heat cooking method
Defat:To remove the fat that congeals on the top of soups, broth, chili and sauces.
Degerminated:A term for grain foods, such as some brands of cornmeal, that have had the germ removed in the milling process.
DeglazeSwirling or stirring a liquid, such as stock or wine, in a pan to dissolve cooked food particles on the bottom of the pan; resulting mixture usually is used as a base for a sauce
Deglaze:To loosen the cooked ingredients and caramelized juices that have stuck to the bottom of the pan after sauteing or roasting to release the full flavor of the meal. Usually deglazing is done with wine or stock to create a sauce.
Deglaze:After meat or poultry is sauteed or fried, most of the fat and the meat are removed from the skillet. Liquid is added to the browned residue and heated, while stirring continuously. This mixture is used for a base in sauces and gravies.
Deglaze:A process of adding liquid to a hot pan in order to collect the bits of food which stick to the pan during cooking. This is most common with sauteed and roasted foods. Wine, stock, and vinegar are common deglazing liquids.
Degrease:To skim off fat that forms on the tops of simmering broths, sauces, and other liquids.
Degrease:To remove the fat that congeals on the top of broths, jus and sauces.
Dehydrate:To remove most of the moisture from food by drying it slowly in the oven or commercial dehydrator.
Delete (food industry term):To no longer stock an item in the warehouse or a retail store.
Deli product ends (food industry term):Meat and cheese ends used for sandwiches, salads or samples.
Deli-bake (food industry term):A combination in-store bakery and deli department where equipment, floor space, and labor are shared, usually under common supervision.
Delicata Squash:A green striped winter squash with pale yellow skin. The flesh is yellow and has a taste between a sweet potato and butternut squash. Also known as sweet potato squash.
Delicatessen (food industry term):An in-store department with cooked foods, salads, cold cuts and cheeses, etc.
Delinquent account (food industry term):Past due customer accounts (accounts receivable).
Delivery cycle (food industry term):The time between an order and its delivery.
Delivery receipt (food industry term):A receipt acknowledging the product count, date and time of a delivery.
Delmonico steak:Sometimes called a shell steak; a tender cut from the short loin.
Demand (food industry term):The amount of goods that consumers will buy at a specific price.
Demand item, demand brand (food industry term):A product or brand whose consumer popularity makes it an essential item for a store to stock.
Demera sugar:A light brown sugar whith large golden crystals which is slightly sticky from adhering molasses. It is popular in England for tea, coffee or to top hot cereals.
Demerara Sugar:A coarse, dry, raw sugar from the Demerara area of Guyana. Its flavor is similar, but not identical, to that of brown sugar.
Demerara sugar:[Great Britain] Brown sugar.
Demi-glace, Demi-glaze:A term meaning “half glaze.” This rich brown sauce begins with a basic espagnole sauce and beef stock, and is slowly cooked with Madeira or sherry until it has been reduced by half. The resulting thick glaze should be able to coat the back of a spoon and can be used as the base for many other sauces.
Demi-Glace:[French] a rich brown sauce comprised of espagnole sauce, which is further enriched with veal stock and wine and reduced to proper consistency. This is a very long procedure and requires constant skimming. A quick version of this involves reducing brown veal stock to which has been added mirepoix, tomato paste, wine, and brown roux. The latter recipe saves time, but never reaches the intensity of flavor as does the former method. Due to the quantity and length of time required to prepare it, it is not usually made in the home. However it is available for home gourmands.
Demitasse:Literally means “half cup” in French; usually refers to a tiny coffee cup used to serve espresso.
Demitasse:A small cup (“half cup”) of black coffee, usually served after dinner.
Demographics, demographic characteristics, demographic profile (food industry term):A snapshot of customers, such as their age, ethnic group, gender, income, education or marital status.
Demonstration or demo (food industry term):A product promotion in a store with samples to eat and cooking-tip handouts and/or coupons.
Demurrage (food industry term):A daily rate charged by railroads for failure to unload a rail car within a specified time frame.
Dente, al:[Italian] “to the teeth.” Not too soft; offering a slight resistance to the teeth.
Depalletize (food industry term):To remove product from the original shipping pallet and repalletize it for shipping or storage.
Department (food industry term):An area in a retail store designated for a category of products, such as, grocery, meat, produce, bakery, among others.
Department flow (food industry term):A continuous, logical flow from one commodity to another. For example, summertime fruit, to hard fruit, to exotic soft varieties in the display.
Department i.d. Label (food industry term):A department’s label affixed to a package, so that the sale is credited to that department at the checkout.
Department sales report (food industry term):A daily breakdown of each department’s sales.
Depouillage:To skim the surface of a cooking liquid, such as a stock or sauce. Depouillage is more easily done by placing the pot off-center on the burner and skimming the impurities as they collect at one side of the pot.
Depreciation (food industry term):A reduction in a fixed asset’s value over time.
Derretida:[Spanish] melted.
Desayuno:[Spanish] breakfast.
Descriptive label (food industry term):The label showing the name of the product, price per pound, total price and possibly the “sell by” date or “pull by” date.
Deshebrar:Spanish term meaning “to shred.”
Dessicated coconut:[Great Britain] Shredded coconut.
Detail person (food industry term):A manufacturer’s or broker’s representative responsible for category conditions, merchandising and writing credits. See retail representative.
Detention (food industry term):A shipper’s fee charged when a truck is not loaded within a certain time frame, which holds up the truck at the warehouse or processing plant.
Devein:To remove the grainy, blackish vein under the rounded top of a shrimp by slitting the shrimp and pulling it out.
Devil:To mix a food with spicy seasonings and sauces. Devilled eggs are an example.
Deviled:Highly seasoned, often containing mustard; frequently topped with bread crumbs and grilled.
Devon Cream:See “Clotted Cream”
Dex/ucs (direct exchange) (food industry term):A telecommunications system between a retailer and supplier that allows for the exchange of sales data, product movement, billings and replenishment needs.
Dexter deli express (food industry term):A free-standing computer used by customers for deli orders.
Dextrose:Also dextroglucose and known as glucose, this sugar is the chief source of energy in the body. Glucose is chemically considered a simple sugar or monosaccharide and naturally occurs and is derived from plant starches such as corn.
Dextrose:A sweetener produced from cornstarch that has been treated with heat and acids or enzymes. Dextrose produces a high-temperature browning effect in baked goods.
Diable:A brown sauce with shallots, white wine, vinegar and herbs.
Dial-up communication (food industry term):A telecommunications link used to exchange data, such as ATM and bankcard authorizations.
Diane:A peppery sauce flavored with game essence, with added butter and cream.
Diary panel (food industry term):A sampling technique used to spot consumer trends. Targeted households keep a record of supermarket purchases for a short period of time.
Dice:To cut into smaller pieces, roughly the size of 1/4 inch.
Dice:To cut inro small cubes.
Dice:To cut into especially small pieces, roughly 1/8 to 1/16-inch.
Dice:To cut into small cubes (smaller than 1/2 inch).
Dietary Fiber:The part of whole grains, fruits, vegetables, beans, nuts and seeds that humans cannot digest; only found in plant foods.
Dietetic foods (food industry term):Low-calorie foods for special diets, such as salt-free, low-sugar, including dietetic soft drinks, organic and health foods.
Digestive Biscuits:[Great Britain] Graham crackers.
Digital scale (food industry term):A programmable scale that weighs, calculates cost and prints a label.
Dijon Mustard:A prepared mustard (originally made in Dijon, France) which may be either mild or highly seasoned. Most recipes when calling for Dijon mustard are referring to the highly seasoned variety. A good American Brand is Grey Poupon.
Dijon:A prepared mustard originally from the Dijon region of France. It has a slightly hot, spicy flavor and is yellow-gray or brown in appearance.
Dijonnaise:Dishes that are prepared with mustard or are accompanied by a sauce that contains mustard.
Dijonnaise:This is a name given to dishes that contain mustard or are served with a sauce that contains mustard.
Dill:An herb that is has feathery leaves that taste somewhat like parsley with overtones of anise and are used fresh or dried. The small oval, brown seeds have a faintly bitter taste and are used as a spice.
Dilute:To add liquid to make less concentrated.
Dim Sum:A selection of small dishes served for snacks and lunch in China. These dishes include a wide selection of fried and steamed dumplings, as well as, various other sweet and savory items. The term for this Chinese style of eating translates as “Heart’s Delight.” Originally dim sum referred to the Cantonese practice of serving small dishes in the teahouses. The method involved food being brought to the table on a cart or tray. The customer would then select the items they desired. Often their bill would be calculated by counting the number of empty plates each person had in front of them. This was usually a daytime meal service. Sweet and savory dishes were offered. Items such as steamed or fried dumplings, spring rolls, spare ribs, pastries, and steamed buns were commonly presented. Today dim sum is also a term used to describe a Chinese style appetizer or snack served in any manner. Frequently the steamed and fried dumplings are also referred to as dim sum.
Dip:A thick sauce served hot or cold to accompany raw vegetables, crackers or chips as an hors d’oeuvre. The base is usually made of yogurt, mayonnaise, sour cream or cream cheese base.
Direct account (food industry term):A retailer who buys directly from a manufacturer and receives all manufacturer allowances.
Direct buyer (food industry term):A buyer who places orders directly with a manufacturer and bypasses a wholesaler.
Direct expense (food industry term):An expense that directly relates to a specific segment of the business operation.
Direct Heat:The lack of a conductor between food and the heat source, such as grilling, broiling, and toasting.
Direct mailing (food industry term):Promotional materials for products received by a customer at home.
Direct product cost (dpc) (food industry term):A product’s total distribution costs, transportation, handling and advertising.
Direct product profit or profitability (dpp) (food industry term):A formula used to measure a product’s profitability. The formula is (Food Industry term): Gross Product Margin minus Direct Product Costs equals Profitability. Usually expressed per-item or case.
Direct sales force (food industry term):A group of salespeople employed by a manufacturing company to work exclusively in promoting and selling its own products.
Direct store delivery (dsd) (food industry term):Products delivered directly to a store by the vendor, such as soft drinks, beer, bread and fresh baked goods, dairy products, potato chips and other fragile items.
Discontinued item (food industry term):Product no longer available to a store. See delete.
Discount (food industry term):A predetermined amount, deducted from the face of an invoice, earned for prompt payment. A sales promotion feature that is a markdown from the regular price for a limited time. A percentage deducted for volume purchases.
Disjoint:To dismember a chicken before cooking by slicing the connective tissue and cartilage and twisting firmly until the pieces separate.
Disk operating system (dos) (food industry term):A read-only-memory in a computer’s hard drive programmed to perform operations, such as converting keystrokes to bits and bytes, formatting, etc.
Dispatch/order processing (food industry term):A supply center department that coordinates product shipments.
Display (food industry term):A merchandising method of highlighting a product by arranging it in a way that attracts the attention of the customer.
Display advertising (food industry term):Point-of-purchase signage developed to promote product on display.
Display allowance (food industry term):A manufacturer’s allowance to a retailer who displays or promotes a product.
Display case (food industry term):A refrigerated or free-standing case for holding products on a sales floor.
Display module (food industry term):A preassembled kit for merchandise display in aisles or shipped on a pallet (generally two to four modules per pallet).
Display pack (food industry term):A case of product packaged in such a way as to be ready immediately to display on the shelf as a unit.
Display stock (food industry term):Products moved from backroom storage to a sales floor.
Display unit load (food industry term):A prebuilt retail display on a pallet ready for in-store merchandising. Also known as Display Pallets.
Disposable (personal) income (food industry term):The measure of what people have available to spend in the marketplace after taxes.
Dissolve:Stirring a dry substance into a liquid until solids are no longer remaining. (For example, stirring sugar into water, yeast into water, etc.).
Dissolve:Stirring a dry substance into a liquid until solids are no longer remaining. (For example, stirring sugar into water, yeast into water, etc.).
Dissolve:To merge with a liquid.
Distressed merchandise (food industry term):Salable merchandise that needs re-working, crisping, re-trimming or to be conditioned or packaged to sell. Product which requires a forced sale because of damage or deterioration. Also known as a distressed item.
Distributing area (food industry term):An analysis of a market area that includes the demographics of the population, number and kind of stores, which is used for price comparisons, market saturation, budgeting, and sales purposes. See trading area.
Distribution (food industry term):A chain of delivery from a manufacturer to a store.
Distribution allowance (food industry term):A manufacturer’s allowance to a retailer for purchasing a new product in a category.
Distribution center (food industry term):A warehouse used to receive, store and ship products to retailers.
Distribution cost analysis (food industry term):The accounting method that factors in the cost of handling and storing individual products and product categories.
Distributor (food industry term):A person or company that supplies products to a retailer through a distribution center.
Distributors’ brand (food industry term):A private-label, brand product packed for a wholesaler, cooperative or chain.
District manager (food industry term):See store supervisor.
Ditali; Ditalini:Italian for thimbles; very short hollow tubes of pasta used in salads and soups. Ditalini is a smaller version of ditali with proportionally thicker pasta.
Ditalini:Diagonally cut thick tubular noodles, 2 to 4 inches long. Short pasta tubes.
Diversified wholesale grocer (food industry term):A wholesaler who stocks and sells product in a variety of categories.
Diverter (food industry term):A reseller that buys “deal” product from manufacturers to re-sell outside of a target market area.
Divide:Equally portioning a dough or batter before shaping or panning prior to baking.
Dock (food industry term):An area to receive, load and unload shipments.
Dock plate (food industry term):A built-in or free-standing metal plate that forms a bridge between a trailer and a loading dock.
Dock:A baking technique in which regularly spaced holes are poked all over the surface of a dough to promote a crisp baked surface (crackers, pet treats, pie shells, all may be docked before baking).
Dock:Any of several varieties of a hardy perennial herb belonging to the buckwheat family, all with some amount of acidity and sourness. The mildest variety is dock sorrel, also called spinach dock.
Docking:Slashing or making incisions in the surface of bread or rolls for proper expansion while baking. Done just before baking.
Docking:The act of piercing small holes or making cuts in dough or crust before baking to allow steam to escape, thus preventing the dough from rising as it bakes.
Dogfish:Also known as cape shark. Fillets are longer, more narrow, and sturdier than those of any other white-fleshed fish. Can be substituted in recipes that call for less tender fillets. This is the fish most frequently used in England’s fish and chips.
Dolcelatte Cheese:A soft, mild, blue-veined cheese that can be served as an appetizer or dessert. Also known as Gorgonzola dolce.
Dolci:Italian word for “sweets”; on a menu, the term means desserts.
Dollar margin (food industry term):See gross margin.
Dollarfish:This small, high:fat fish has a tender texture and a rich, sweet flavor. Found off the coast of the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico, this fish is also called the “butterfish.”
Dollop:1. A spoonful of soft and usually creamy food, such as sour cream of mayonnaise. 2. It may also mean a dash or “splash” of a liquid like a “splash of sparkling water”.
Dolly (food industry term):A small hand-cart with two wheels used to move heavy objects.
Dolma:A cold hors d oeuvre made of grape leaves stuffed with cooked rice, lamb, and onion. They are marinated with olive oil and lemon. Vegetarian versions of this are also made.
Dolmades; Dolmas:Blanched grape leaves stuffed with a seasoned mixture of ground lamb and rice, braised in stock, oil and lemon juice. Other foods that can be used as casings include squash, eggplant, sweet peppers, cabbage leaves, quinces and apples.
Dolphin fish:Also called “Mahi Mahi” and “Dorado.” Although this fish is a dolphin, it is not a mammal. To avoid confusion, the Hawaiian name “Mahi Mahi” is becoming prevalent. This fish is moderately fat with firm, flavorful flesh.
Domestic turbot:A highly prized flatfish with a lean, firm white flesh and a mild flavor. Turbot is also the market name for several varieties of flounder fished from Pacific waters.
Domestics (food industry term):Soft goods, such as kitchen items, linens and other household textiles.
Dorado:[Spanish] golden.
Dos (food industry term):Disk operating system.
D-o-s (food industry term):Days-of-supply.
Dot:To place random bits of food (like butter) on the surface of another food.
Double Acting Baking Powder:Releases leavening gases twice: Once when it comes in contact with moisture and again when exposed to heat from the oven.
Double Boiler:Like with a bain-marie, you cook in a double broiler without using direct heat. Two saucepans that fit together on on top of the other. The bottom pan contains boiling water is placed on the heat source and the top one contains the food to be cooked.
Double boiler:Cooking utensil much like a bain-marie method of cooking without using direct heat. It usually consists of two saucepans that fit together. The bottom saucepan is filled with water and the top saucepan is filled with a mixture requiring non-direct heat to prepare. It is most often used to prepare custards or melt chocolate. The saucepans can be made from stainless steel, aluminum, or glass.
Double cream:[Great Britain] Whipping cream.
Double in bulk:Refers to expansion of gluten cells in yeast bread that has risen and is ready to be punched down. Recipe will give a range of time. Varies with dough and environment’s temperature. May be difficult to tell visually – Finger test used by bakers – gently press two fingers into dough, if marks remain unchanged, dough is ready to punch.
Double in size:Refers to the final rising (proofing) before bread is baked. This is a visual measurement, subject to guessing. Some bakers make a template for a guide-when bread is a certain height above the pan edge. Look for recipe or formula guide – “3/4 proof=half again as large” or “full proof=almost double in size.” May touch side of loaf very gently-if slight print remains, bake.
Double-bagged (food industry term):A bagging practice used to reinforce bags of heavy items by putting one bag inside another
Double-truck (food industry term):A newspaper advertisement of two facing pages.
Dough keg:An old Western term for the wooden barrel which held the sourdough starter.
Dough scraper, dough or bench knife:A flat, heavy metal blade (about 3 X 5-inches) with straight sides, sharp corners and a handle on top edge for moving, kneading, clean-cutting dough, incising, or even cleaning work surfaces.
Dough:A mixture of flour and liquids, and may have other ingredients, that is thick enough to be handled, kneaded or shaped.
Dough:A mixture of oil or shortening, flour, liquid, and other ingredients that retains its shape when placed on a flat surface, although may change shape once baked like cookies and breads.
Dough:Dough is a mixture of four, liquid, and usually a leavening agent (such as eggs or yeast), which is stiff but pliable. The primary difference between dough and batter is the consistency- Dough is thicker and must be molded by hand, while batter is semi-liquid, thus spooned or poured.
Dpc (food industry term):Direct product cost.
Dpp (food industry term):Direct product profit.
Drain:To remove liquid from a food product.
Drain:To remove liquid from, pour off, sometimes with the use of a strainer or colander.
Drained weight (food industry term):The weight of a canned product without the liquid.
Drawn Butter, Clarified Butter:Butter that has been melted and skimmed of milk solids.
Dredge:To coat foods lightly with dry ingredients before cooking. The most common dredge is flour.
Dredge:To cover or coat with floor or other fine substance.
Dredge:To coat with dry ingredients such flour, corn meal, or bread crumbs before cooking. Desserts are dredged with sugar after baking or frying.
Dredge:To coat a food, as with flour or sugar.
Dress:1. To prepare poultry for cooking. 2. To add dressing to a salad.
Dress:To pluck, draw and truss poultry or game; to arrange or garnish a cooked dish; to prepare cooked shellfish in their shells.
Dressed fish (food industry term):A whole scaled, cleaned fish, sold with or without the head.
Dried fruit:When it is dried, fruit becomes very concentrated in nutrients and fiber, which is why a standard serving is quite small. Just a quarter-cup (a scant handful) of dried fruit counts as a serving, yet it contains the same amount of fiber found in a whole piece of fruit or a half-cup of diced fruit – about two or three grams. Because dried fruit is so portable, it makes an excellent snack. The trick is to watch your portions, because calories are concentrated and they can add up quickly. One serving of most dried fruit contains 50 to 80 calories. That’s a great bargain, because it provides more nutrients and will probably satisfy your hunger longer than a cookie with 100 calories or a low-fat granola bar containing 150 calories.
Dried Wood Ears:An edible mushroom that grows on the trunks of dead trees. It has a shallow oval cup and is somewhat crunchy in texture. Also known as tree ear, Jew’s ear and cloud ear mushroom.
Drippings:The fat and liquid that result when meat is cooked.
Drippings:Fat and juices drawn and left from meat or poultry as it cooks.
Drizzle:To pour a liquid over a food in a thin stream to create a thread:like coating.
Drizzle:To pour a light amount, from a spoon, over food.
Drizzle:To trickler a very fine stream of liquid like a glaze or melted butter over food.
Drop shipment (food industry term):A retailer’s order shipped directly to a store by a manufacturer.
Drop trailer (food industry term):A van filled with merchandise that a driver leaves at a store for unloading.
Drop:To deposit even portions of dough on a baking sheet using spoon or batter dispenser.
Drop-in display (food industry term):A display unit that fits into or takes the place of grocery shelves.
Drops (food industry term):The number of retail deliveries made in a day. A list of price reductions.
Drug wholesalers (food industry term):A pharmaceutical wholesaler who sells primarily to chain or single-unit drug stores.
Drum:Any of a variety of fish named for the drumming or deep croaking noise they make. These fish are firm and low in fat. The drum family include the black croaker, black drum, hardhead, kingfish, and queenfish.
Drum:A variety of fish so named because of the sounds that it makes during mating. The fish is usually quite lean and can weigh anywhere between 1 pound and 30 pounds.
Dry Aging:An aging process that adds flavor and tenderizes to beef through an enzyme action.
Dry Aging:A process usually referring to beef. This process not only adds flavor but tenderizes the beef through enzyme action. Maximum flavor and tenderness is achieved in 21 days.
Dry Cure:A method of curing meat or fish by using a combination of salts and seasonings, usually before smoking.
Dry grocery (food industry term):Nonperishable grocery products.
Dry grocery non-foods (food industry term):Products that are not food, such as paper products, detergents, or pet items.
Dry ingredients:Refers to the ingredients in a recipe, such as flours, sugar, leavening, salt, baking cocoa, spices, or herbs, that may be blended before adding to another mixture in the recipe.
Dry measuring cups:Straight-sided, graduated sizes of cups with a handle attached at the top lip. A home baking measuring tool used in the U.S. The common cup sizes are ?, 1/3, ½, 1, and 2 cup, and are often nested for ease in storage. They are used to measure a standard amount of dry ingredients, such as flour, sugar, cornmeal, or brown sugar, for home baking recipes. The dry ingredients are spooned into the cup and leveled off with a straight-edged utensil.
Dry Milk:A product made from milk from which almost all the moisture has been removed, leaving the milk solids in a powdery form. Dry milk comes in three basic forms: whole milk, nonfat milk and buttermilk. Dry milk is less expensive and easier to store than fresh milk (though dry whole milk must be refrigerated because of its milk-fat content), and the taste is never quite the same as fresh milk.
Dry mop (food industry term):A large dust mop.
Dry Saute:To saute food with very little or no fat; a nonstick pan is often used for this method.
Dry-Curd Cottage Cheese and Farmers Cheese:Cottage cheese with no cream added. Farmer cheese, like cottage cheese, is curdled milk that has been drained of whey. The major difference is that farmer cheese is a smaller curd.
Dsd (food industry term):Direct store delivery.
Du Jour:French term meaning “of the day”; used to indicate a special menu item.
Duchess:The name for potato puree that is enriched with cream, then piped into decorative shapes and browned in the oven. They are often piped around the rim of a platter onto which a roast or whole fish may be served.
Duck:Any of a variety of species of wild or domestic web:footed birds. Broilers and fryers are under 8 weeks old, roasters are no more than 16 weeks old. Duck is generally higher in fat than other domestic birds.
Duck:A variety of poultry refering to a domestic web footed bird. It’s meat is dark and has a rich, deep flavor.
Dulce:[Spanish] sweet; mild (to taste).
Dulces:[Spanish] desserts and sweet dishes.
Dumb terminal (food industry term):A computer terminal, also called a video display terminal (VDT), that is linked to a remote processor.
Dummy-up (food industry term):A false bottom for displays, which gives the appearance of mass quantities of merchandise.
Dump display (food industry term):Massive amounts of product displayed in bulk, in baskets, or in shipping containers.
Dump table (food industry term):A display table where products are haphazardly piled rather than neatly arranged.
Dumpling:A batter or soft dough, which is formed into small mounds that are then steamed, poached, or simmered.
Dumplings:A small mound of dough usually pan-fried, deep-fried, or cooked in a liquid mixture, such as broth or stew. Sometimes the dumplings are flat squares or strips.
Dungeness Crab:A large crab found along the Pacific coast from Mexico to Alaska. Weighing from 1 pound to 4 pounds, this variety of crab has pink flesh that is succulent and sweet.
Durazno:[Spanish] peach.
Durian:A large fruit from southeast Asia that has a creamy, gelatinous texture and a nauseating smell similar to that of stinky feet. The flesh is savored by many from this area, but outsiders find it a difficult flavor to become accustomed.
Durum Flour:High protein flour produced from durum wheat. Durum wheat is used to make semolina, which is combined with water to make pasta dough. It is also known for the high amounts of gluten it produces.
Dust collectors (food industry term):Slow-moving products.
Dust:To lightly sprinkle a baked product or surface with powdered sugar, flour, or meal.
Dust:To sprinkle food lightly with spices, sugar, or flour.
Dust:To sprinkle lightly, as with sugar, crumbs, flour.
Duster (food industry term):A cleaning tool made of feathers.
Dutch Oven:A large pot or kettle, usually made of cast iron, with a tight-fitting lid so steam cannot readily escape. It’s used for moist-cooking methods, such as braising and stewing. Dutch ovens are said to be of Pennsylvania Dutch heritage, dating back to the 1700s.
Dutch oven:A heavy cooking pot, usually of cast iron or enamel-on-iron, with a heavy cover.
Dutch process cocoa powder:Treated with an alkali to neutralize its naturally acidic taste, making it a little more mellow than American cocoa powder; intense flavor. (See Cocoa Powder)
Dutch-processed cocoa:Unsweetened baking cocoa that is further processed with an alkali to neutralize cocoa’s natural acidity; Substitution guidelines – 3 tablespoons (18g) Dutchprocessed cocoa = 3 tablespoons (18g) natural cocoa powder plus pinch (1/8 teaspoon) baking soda.
Duxelle:Finely chopped mushrooms that are cooked in butter with shallots and wine. When cooked dry, duxelle make a good filling for omelets, fish, and meat. They may also be moistened with wine or broth and served as a sauce. Duxelle are also flavored with fresh herbs and brandy or Madeira.
Duxelles:A reduction of finely chopped mushrooms, parsley, onions, pepper, shallots, salt and butter, used to flavor soups, stuffings and sauces.
Dv (food industry term):Daily value.